The Winterthur Library

The Joseph Downs Collection of Manuscripts and Printed Ephemera

Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum

5105 Kennett Pike, Winterthur, Delaware  19735

Telephone: 302-888-4600 or 800-448-3883

 

 

OVERVIEW OF THE COLLECTION

 

Creator:         Centennial Exhibition (1876: Philadelphia, Pa.)                   

Title:               Collection       

Dates:             1874-1878

Call No.:         Col. 259         

Acc. No.:        [various – see detailed description]

Quantity:        2 boxes, 2 folders

Location:        18 I 3-4

 

 

 

HISTORICAL STATEMENT

 

The Centennial International Exhibition was held in Philadelphia from May 10 to November 10, 1876.  Planning for it began in 1871 when Congress passed an act to create the Centennial Commission.  A portion of Fairmount Park in Philadelphia was used as the fairgrounds, and Hermann J. Scwarzmann, a German immigrant, was chosen to design the layout of the exhibition.  By early 1875, construction was underway on the fair's large buildings and some 250 pavilions and auxiliary structures.  The major buildings were Memorial Hall, Machinery Hall, the Main Building, Horticultural Hall, and Agricultural Hall.  Everything displayed at the Centennial was classified into one of eight departments: Mining and Metallurgy, Manufactures, Education, Science, Art, Machinery, Agriculture, and Horticulture.  These names of these departments were subsequently adapted by Melvil Dewey as the basis for his library classification scheme, the Dewey Decimal System.

 

Although the Centennial lost money, it provided ample evidence of American progress in education, industry, and the arts that would have a lasting impact on foreign trade.

 

 

SCOPE AND CONTENT

 

The collection consists of miscellaneous photographs, a glass lantern slide, stereographs, lithographs, advertising materials, maps, and other memorabilia relating to the Centennial International Exhibition. The photographs and stereographs depict the interiors and exteriors of fair buildings.  Several feature sculptures that were displayed in the Italian section.  A series of colored lithographs published by Thomas Hunter depict the exteriors of fair buildings and the surrounding landscape.

 

Several pieces of advertising pertain to pre-centennial events and the First Centennial Train ride in October of 1875.  The events were sponsored by Philadelphia merchants in an effort to raise money and publicize the exhibition.  Other printed items include fair regulations, building descriptions, and a few advertisements produced by exhibiting firms.  A broadside with the rail road route and a souvenir map with advertisements round out the printed material.

 

The collection also features the "Centennial Exhibition Puzzle Blocks," manufactured by George H. Chinook.  It includes pieces for five puzzles that when put together show the Art Gallery, Machinery Hall, Horticultural Hall, Agricultural Hall, and the Main Building.  The bottom of the box offers descriptions of each of the buildings.  Finally, a double handkerchief (that is, two handkerchiefs, not cut apart) with a depiction of the Memorial Hall Art Gallery and an American eagle is included in the collection.

 

 

ORGANIZATION

 

The materials are grouped by type: photographs and stereographs, lithographs, advertising materials and memorabilia, and miscellaneous.

 

 

LANGUAGE OF MATERIALS

 

The materials are mostly in English; some captions are in German, French, and Spanish.

 

 

RESTRICTIONS ON ACCESS

 

Collection is open to the public.  Copyright restrictions may apply.

           

 

PROVENANCE

 

Purchased from various sources.        

 

 

RELATED MATERIALS

 

In the Artifacts section of the Andrews Memorial Shaker Collection are found the exhibitor’s pass and the photo identification of R.M. Wagan, and the medal he and his Shaker chairs won at the exhibition.

 

In the Print Study Collection:

Lithograph of the Art Gallery, Centennial Exhibition, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, 1874.  (Originally Downs accession 71x261, now Museum accession 1973.0570; transferred 10/9/73).

 

 

ACCESS POINTS

           

            People:

                        Hunter, Thomas.

 

Topics:

            Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.)

            Buildings - Pictorial works.

            Lithography - Specimens.

            Exhibitions - Pennsylvania - Philadelphia.

            Sculpture - Photographs.

            Puzzles.

            United States - Centennial celebrations, etc. - Pennsylvania - Philadelphia.

            Advertising fliers.

            Photographs.

            Albumen prints.

            Wet collodion negatives.

            Card photographs.

            Stereographs.

            Programs.

            Admission tickets.

            Maps.

            Broadsides.

 

 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE COLLECTION

 

Location: 18 I 3-4

 

Box 1:

 

Folder 1: Advertising and Memorabilia (acc. 69x154.1-.16; 04x59): Broadsides, prints, circulars, advertisements, and pamphlets, 1876:

 

            .1         Broadside about the design of the principal buildings, with an engraving of the Main Exhibition Building. (folded)

            .2         General regulations for exhibitors, with a list of commissioners, departments, etc.  Dated May 22, 1875.  At head of title: no. 105.

            .3         Rules for displays in the Main Exhibition Building.  Dated Aug. 20, 1875.  At head of title: no. 118.

            .4         Engraving: “Balloon View of the Grounds,” printed as supplement to Harper’s Weekly, Sept. 30, 1876, done from photographs by R. Newell & Sons and sketches by Theo. R. Davis. (folded; parting along fold lines – handle with care)

            .5         Description of the Art Gallery, with illustration. (folded)

            .6         Centennial Newspaper Exhibition, with view of the building and a floor plan on the reverse

            .7         Suggestions for pedestals, balustrades, and seats for the Main Exhibition Building.

            .8         Advertisement for The Illustrated Catalogue of the United States International Exhibition, 1876.

            .9         Circular for the National Cookery Book proposed by the Women's Centennial Executive Committee.

            .10       Ad for fireworks available at the centennial from B.T. Wells of the New England Laboratory of Boston.

            .11       Ad from Maynard's Centennial and Art Bulletin for photographs and stereographs of the art exhibition, Dec. 1876.  Also announces that Maynard’s Grand Reproductions of the World’s Fair will be on exhibit in Boston.

            .12       Pamphlet about the British Section, specifically about 3 silver items manufactured by Elkington & Co.

            .13       Ad for A.H. Hews & Co., pottery seller of North Cambridge, Mass., printed by Frank Wood.  On back: view of Hews & Co. potter’s wheel exhibit in Main Building and display in Art Building.

            .14       Ad for Perry's Wooden House; address: J.R. Perry, Wilkes-Barre, Pa.

            .15       Ad for Ferris Patent Cooker, with instructions for use.  Available from Jesup & Sterling, New York.

            .16       Pamphlet about the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Hampton, Virginia, with views of Virginia Hall and Academic Hall.

 

04x59              United States Centennial Commission.  International Exhibition, 1876, Philadelphia.  General Regulations for Exhibitors in the United States. No. 62. 

                                    Lists members of the commission, the categories into which exhibits will be divided, and other rules about exhibits.  Published July 4, 1874.

 

 

Folder 2: Tickets

 

55.708, 62x92, 12x133, 13x74           Package tickets to the exhibition good from May 10 to Nov. 10, 1876.  All were engraved by the Philadelphia Bank Note Company and include printed signature of David G. Yates.  Three are pink on the back; one is blue-green and indicates that the cost of entrance was 50 cents.

                        Ticket numbers: 22, 545, 71923, 87350, 91788

 

 

Folder 3: Stereographs: (acc. 68x37.4-.6; 69x224.1-.9; 77x27.1, 96x61.8; 99x118.8)

 

68x37: from the Centennial Photographic Co., Philadelphia, 1876:

            .4         Reed & Barton Co.’s silver exhibit in the main building

            .5         Reed & Barton Co.’s silver exhibit in the main building, a close-up view of the exhibit, showing a trophy urn, two sculptures, coffee and tea services, and other pieces

            .6a-.6b             Reed & Barton Co.’s silver exhibit in the main building (2 copies)

 

 

69x225: from the Centennial Photographic Co., Philadelphia, 1876:

            .1         Art Annex, Italian section [shows statues and paintings]

            .2         Art Annex, Italian section [different view from above]

            .3         Italian section, Memorial Hall Annex [shows statues and paintings]

            .4         Maxwell's Rocky Mountain Museum, Colorado Building [shows mostly mammals]

            .5         Art Annex, Italian Department [shows statues]

            .6         Art Annex, Italian section [shows statues]

            .7         Corliss engine

            .8         Art Annex, Italian section [shows statues and paintings]

           

69x225.9         General Washington's carriage, with notice on back that S.R. Phillips had been awarded prize for his harness and saddles

 

77x27.1           Art Annex, Italian section [shows some of the same statues and paintings as in 69x225.3] (from the Centennial Photographic Co., Philadelphia, 1876)

 

96x61.8           Art Annex, the name of the section is illegible, but the round items on the wall in the background are the same as those in the background in 69x225.5, which is labeled Italian Department (card printed by the Centennial Photographic Co. of Philadelphia, 1876)

 

99x118.8         Mississippi State Building, from the series entitled Centennial Views, Phila., New Excelsior Series

 

 

Folder 4: Photographs:

 

71x262            Glass lantern slide of the Italian Section of the Main Building, 1876. 

                        Labeled both Centennial Photographic Co. of Philadelphia, 1876, and L. J. Marcy, Philadelphia

 

 

Folder 5: Photographs: (acc. 71x263, all carte-de-visite size)

 

71x263            Photograph cards

            .1         Interior view of a room, probably a display of antique furniture [caption illegible]

            .2         Art Gallery

            .3         The Union Vase

            .4         A head in marble

            .5         Baby house [a doll house]

            .6         Washington's carriage

            .7         Arms and Trophy Department [suits of armor, cannon, weapons]

            .8         Rustic bridge, Horticultural Department

            .9         Union Avenue

            .10       Union Avenue (slightly different view from that above)

            .11       Interior view of unnamed building, flags hanging from the ceiling

            .12       Relics and curiosities

            .13       Refreshment saloon, showing waiters, all of whom appear to be African Americans

            .14       Firemen's department (see also .19)

            .15       Photograph Department

            .16       India rubber Department (so captioned, but sign on wall reads Rubber & Gutta Percha Department)

            .17       Art Gallery

            .18       Art Gallery  (different view from that above)

            .19       Firemen's Department (different view from .14 above)

            .20       Department of silverware

            .21       Independence Hall

            .22       Independence Hall (different view from that above)

 

 

 

Folder 6: Lithographs: (acc. 77x356.1-.19)

 

77x356            Colored lithographs published by Thomas Hunter, lithographer, Philadelphia, Pa., 1876; all have captions in English, German, and French, and many also in Spanish.

            .1         Agricultural Hall, by L. Aubrun, with dimensions of building

            .2         Horticultural Hall, by L. Aubrun, with dimensions of building

            .3         Judges Hall, by Aubrun, with dimensions of building

            .4         Machinery Hall, by Aubrun, with dimensions of building

            .5         Brewers Building, artist’s name illegible

            .6         Butter and Cheese Factory

            .7         Carriage Exhibition Building

            .8         Cook's World’s Ticket Office

            .9         French Restaurant

            .10       Glass Exhibition Building, Gillinder & Sons

            .11       Illinois Building

            .12       Michigan Building

            .13       Missouri Building

            .14       Photograph Exhibition Building

            .15       Pomological Building

            .16       Photographic Association Studio

            .17       Shoe and Leather Building

            .18       Singer Sewing Machine Co.

            .19       Spanish Building

 

 

 

Folder 7: Letterhead stationery

 

83x75.3           Letterhead stationery for Thomas Hunter, Lithographer, featuring an illustration of the Main Building. 

                        With letter, Th. Hunter and Lanard, Jan. 20, 1876, to Mr. M. L. Filly: enclosing price list for Hunter's Centennial pictures and mentioning some of items available.

 

83x111            billhead for Thomas Hunter, Lithographer, which does not mention the Centennial Exhibition.

                        Receipted bill, M. L. Filley paid for 100 Centennial views

 

 

Folder 8: Map (bound volume)       

 

70x27              Centennial Memento Map of Philadelphia, a bound volume with a fold-out map, featuring advertisements and engraved illustrations of Centennial buildings.  A few of the ads are in German. 

 

                        The map was originally published by T.R. Callender & Co. in 1872, based on survey of E. Stoifier.  The name John P. Hunt has been overprinted, as have views of 2 Centennial buildings (Main and Art Gallery).

 

                        Handle with great care – the map is parting along fold lines.

 

 

Folder 9: Machine embroidered picture

 

80x84              Machine embroidered view of "Memorial Hall, International Exhibition," made by Werner Itschner & Co. Philadelphia, Pa., and designed by W. Ecklin, commemorating the Centennial. 

 

                        Machine embroidered on silk with blue threads.  The item is in a contemporary mat and frame.

 

Folder 10: Centennial Train memorabilia, 1875 (acc. 80x218):

 

80x218            Centennial Train memorabilia, October 1875:

            .1         Printed circular letter regarding a special Centennial Train to bring special guests from Buffalo, N.Y., to view the fair grounds.  This special trip was on Oct. 20-21, 1875.  (see .2 below, which goes with this item)

            .2         Invitation from the Merchants of Philadelphia to Mr. H.B. Tuttle, “to inspect the preparations for the...” Centennial Exhibition.   Inside is the list of Philadelphia merchants who extended the invitation.  (This invitation was accompanied by the circular letter above.)

            .3         Pictorial envelope advertising the "First Centennial Train," with an inscription "about 300 invited ... to examine the buildings and other preparations for the exposition..."

            .4a-b    Newspaper clippings about the train

            .5         Ticket for the Centennial Train, no. 4.

            .6-7      Schedules of the First Centennial Train for Oct. 20, 1875. (.7 is in two pieces)

            .8         Invitation to Centennial Lunch, Oct. 20, 1875, catered by P. J. Hanour.

            .9         Theater ticket for guests of the merchants of Philadelphia visiting the city for the Centennial.  “Tom Cobb” and “Sweethearts” were presented at the Chestnut Street Theatre.

            .10       Ticket for Banquet at the Belmont Pavilion, hosted by the merchants of Philadelphia, Oct. 21, 1875.

            .11       Menu for the banquet, with program of music by Hassler’s Orchestra.

            .12       Red ribbon badge, with gilt printing, Oct. 21, 1875 [probably worn by the guests]

 

 

Folder 11: Handkerchief

 

83x141            Double handkerchief (i.e. two handkerchiefs which have not been cut apart or hemmed) featuring a depiction of the Memorial Hall Art Gallery and the American eagle.  The item has a red border with stars.

 

 

Folder 12: souvenir booklet

 

04x42.2           “Souvenir of the Centennial Exposition,” a small booklet (almost 3” x 4 5/8”) with dark red cover, with fold-out pictures: birds-eye view of the fairgrounds, Main Building, Machinery Hall, Art Gallery, Agricultural Hall, Horticultural Hall, Women’s Pavilion..  The name Harriet K. Frunzen is penciled at the end.

 

Folder 13: brochure

 

04x55.1           an advertising brochure about Spa, Belgium, mostly in French, with the heading “Exposition Internationale de Philadelphie, 1876.”  The brochure describes the springs and the activities of the town.

 

 

 

Flat on shelf:

 

80x85              Illustrated broadside, “Pennsylvania Railroad / Exclusive Route to the Centennial Exhibition,” featuring a map of Philadelphia and the Centennial grounds; D.M. Boyd, Jr., General Passenger Agent; printed by Allen, Lane & Scott's Railroad and Mercantile Printing House, Philadelphia, Pa., 1876. 

                                    It includes two views, one a bird's eye view of the Centennial grounds and the other a view of railroad track tanks along a river.  Printed in blue and black.

 

81x296            “Centennial Souvenir.”  A print of an elaborate Centennial Exhibition badge.  Figures from top to bottom include (there are more than are herein described): Statue of Freedom, Columbia, statues of soldiers, a central medallion with portraits of George Washington and U. S. Grant, a seal with horses between views of buildings, two artillerymen with a cannon, two more seals, another allegorical female figure, and the Liberty Bell.  At the bottom of the sheet is printed “Keep me for ever.”

 

 

Box 2: puzzle

 

[no accession number] Centennial Exhibition Puzzle Blocks, manufactured by George H. Chinnook, Brett Litho. Co., lithographer 1875.  Pieces are in a wooden box with an illustration of the main building. Lithographs of the Art Gallery, Machinery Hall, Horticultural Hall, Agricultural Hall, and the Main Building are included as they depict completed puzzles.  Pieces were printed using oil colors.  The bottom of the box contains descriptions of each of the buildings.